About The Product
Published via the yank Geophysical Union as a part of the Antarctic examine Series.
In a 1971 medical Committee on Antarctic study record that reviewed polar contrasts in sea ice, Lyn Lewis and Willy Weeks made the subsequent commentary: "People who research sea ice within the Arctic Basin are frequently asked in the event that they have ever studied ice in Antarctica, they usually solution 'why hassle, it is the usual stuff." Noting this used to be "fortunately real to a substantial extent," they extra "It is apparent that destiny paintings will rely seriously at the logistics amenities on hand to permit floor observations past the short ice part in any respect seasons of the 12 months. of virtually equivalent value would be the improvement of tools and recording apparatus suited to use within the polar surroundings" (Lewis, E. L., and W. F. Weeks, Sea Ice: a few Polar Contrasts, in, Antarctic Ice and Water Masses, edited by way of G. Deacon, clinical Committee on Antarctic study, Cambridge, 23-34, 1971).
Lewis and Weeks made no particular point out of Earth-orbiting satellites, on which the 1st passive microwave sensor grew to become operational in December 1972. below a yr later the enormous Weddell Polynya used to be saw for the 1st time. possibly greater than the other improvement, this unforeseen function illustrated the capability to vastly extend our wisdom of sea ice during the software of spaceborne distant sensing. concurrently, it acted as a catalyst for an important elevate within the point of study.
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Extra resources for Antarctic Sea Ice: Physical Processes, Interactions and Variability
Wankiewicz  usesa time seriesof brightnesstemperature to detect the onset of melt and thus wet snow. Walker and Goodisonuse the differencebetweenvertical and horizontalpolarizationat 37 GHz to distinguish areas of wet snow from snow-free land. g. Snowcovercanat timesmask microwave/imager(SSM/I). Passivemicrowavesen- the signatureof the underlyingice [Lohanick,1990] sors, unhampered by cloud cover and unaffected by so that variations in emissivity result predominantly darkness,are particularly well suited for monitoring from variations in snow cover properties.
68, edited by F. , R. Jaffa, S. Li, and-S. McCullars, Sea-iceand snow-thickness distributions in late winter 1993 pp. , 1992. J. Cavalieri, Reduction of weather and 1994 in the Ross, Amundsen, and Bellingshausen effects in the calculation of sea ice concentration from Seas, Ant. J. 90, 18-21, 1995. microwaveradiances, J. , P. Gloersen, A. Chang, and A. Rango, 1986. J. J. C. L. J. Zwally, Arctic and River Basin, J. Geophys. , IOI, 6679-6688, 1996. , S. Patil, and H. , 1992. microwaveradiometer (SMMR) data, IEEE Trans.
A map of Antarctica and the Southern Ocean is presented in Figure 1. As no algorithm currently exists for snow depth retrieval over sea ice surfaces,this study is a first-time effort. , 1983;Stilesand Ulaby,1986]leading to underestimates in snowdepth. Wankiewicz  usesa time seriesof brightnesstemperature to detect the onset of melt and thus wet snow. Walker and Goodisonuse the differencebetweenvertical and horizontalpolarizationat 37 GHz to distinguish areas of wet snow from snow-free land.
Antarctic Sea Ice: Physical Processes, Interactions and Variability