By Ivar Lodemel, Amilcar Moreira
The decade of the 20 th century was once marked by means of a shift in how welfare-states care for these on the backside of the source of revenue ladder. This shift concerned the introduction/strengthening of work-obligations as a for receiving minimal source of revenue merits - which, in a few international locations, used to be complemented via efforts to assist recipients go back to the labour industry, particularly throughout the funding in lively labour industry regulations (ALMP).
Based on case-studies of advancements within the US and 8 ecu countries (UK, Norway, Denmark, Netherlands, Germany, France, Portugal and the Czech Republic), this e-book argues that this primary set of reforms was once by means of a moment wave of reforms that, when deepening the trail in the direction of the point of interest on paintings, brings very important recommendations- be it the instruments used to aid recipients again to the labour markets (ex., monetary incentives) and in how activation guidelines are added (ex., integration of gain and employment services).
Looking on the array of advancements brought in this interval, we parent key traits.
The first issues the strengthening of the position of the marketplace within the governance of activation, that's noticeable within the strengthening of the point of interest on paintings, or the marketisation of employment providers. the second one, issues a circulate in the direction of the individualisation of provider supply, noticeable within the enlargement of using own motion plans or in efforts to streamline carrier supply.
Finally, we express that the onset of the sovereign debt problem in Europe, has prompted a brand new wave of reforms. while tentative simply, our research issues to a caring pattern of the curtailment or advantages (Portugal) and activation prone (Netherlands, Czech Republic) to minimal source of revenue recipients and, in parallel, a different deepening of the focal point on work-conditionality (UK and Norway).
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Additional info for Activation or Workfare? Governance and the Neo-Liberal Convergence
Converging worlds of activation? Activation policies and governance in Europe and the role of the EU. International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, 32(5/6), 312–326. A. (1993). Policy paradigms, social learning, and the state: The case of economic policymaking in Britain. Comparative Politics, 25(3), 275–296. , & Baltzer, N. (2001). The role of social assistance as means of social inclusion and activation: A comparative study on minimum income in seven European countries (Report 4: Activation policies in the context of social assistance).
The Fight Against Poverty: Call for a New Activation Approach In the 1997 parliamentary elections, Norway’s Labour government was taken to task for not having done enough to concretely address the issue of poverty (Hagen & Lødemel, 2003). In 1998, the newly reigning center-right government spoke to the idea of a “softer work approach” in its 1998 White Paper on Equalization and emphasized the need to develop more flexible and individualized support schemes for the transition to work (Sosial- og helsedepartementet, 1999; Bryn, 2008).
The primary remedy for the elimination of poverty was to be measures that encouraged more people to move off income replacement benefits and into employment. The white paper on work, welfare, and inclusion (Norwegian Ministry of Labor and Inclusion, 2006) would solidify and clarify the rights and duties of individuals taking part in these measures. The document prescribed customized plans conegotiated by participants (increased rights) yet also required them to follow the plans under close supervision (increased duties) or risk losing their benefits altogether.
Activation or Workfare? Governance and the Neo-Liberal Convergence by Ivar Lodemel, Amilcar Moreira