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By H. D. Kumar, H. N. Singh (auth.)

ISBN-10: 0333260724

ISBN-13: 9780333260722

ISBN-10: 1349161446

ISBN-13: 9781349161447

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FERTILIZER Seaweeds, being rich in potassium, phosphorus, trace elements and growth substances, are extensively utilized as man ure by people of coastal districts. The . weeds are either allowed to rot in the field or composted with other organic materials. The resulting manure, when added to agricultural fields, not only enriches them in mineral nutrients but also helps in soil bin ding, in breaking down clays and in promoting good crumb formation. Such eoralIine or lime-depositing algae as Lithothamnion and Lithophy//um are used for timing the crop fields.

This leads to the creation of new combinations of genes by pooling together in one line of descent the genes derived from two different parents, thus resulting in a reshuffiing ofthe gene material. The recombinants so produced can then be subjected to natural selection. In procaryotic organisms recombinants are formed by such processes as conjugation, transformation and transduction, none of which involves true karyogamy and meiosis. This genetic recombination in bacteria and bluegreen algae accordingly falls short of the true and complete definition of sexuality in the sense adopted here, even though it fulfils the samefunction as true sexuality.

In Rhodophyta the oogonium having a swollen base (containing the egg) and asiender projecting neck, the trichogyne, is called a carpogonium, and the non-motile, non-f1agellate male gamete is termed spermatium, the structure producing it being known as a spermatangium. True sexuality has been established for most members of the Chlorophyta, Phaeophyta and Rhodophyta and for some members of the Xanthophyta, Bacillariophyta, Pyrrophyta and Chrysophyta. In the Cyanophyta, true sexuality in the sense of karyogamy and meiosis is lacking but a parasexual phenomenon involving recombination of genes in a single line of des cent from two genetically distinct parents has been reported in three REPRODUCTION AND PERENNA TION 29 different genera-Anacystis, Cylindrospermum and Anabaena.

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A Textbook on Algae by H. D. Kumar, H. N. Singh (auth.)

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